Journal of Botany <p><strong>University of Chitral Journal of Botany (UOCHJB)</strong></p> <p>An International Interdisciplinary Journal for Plant Sciences</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Description and Scope</strong></p> <p><em>University of Chitral Journal of Botany (UOCHJB)</em>&nbsp;publishes peer-reviewed, innovative, significant research of interest to a wide audience of scientists in all areas of plant biology (e.g., Pharmacognosy, biodiversity, structure, function, development, genetics, evolution, reproduction, systematics), plant/animal interactions, all levels of organization (molecular to ecosystem), and all plant groups and allied organisms (cyanobacteria, algae, fungi, and lichens).</p> <p><strong>Aims</strong></p> <p>Journal of Botany is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of botany.</p> <p><strong>Society information</strong></p> <p>Members of the (UOCHJB)&nbsp;receive online access to the Journal as part of their annual membership, and the option to receive the print version of the journal at a discounted rate.</p> <p><strong>Benefits to authors</strong><br>We also provide many author benefits, such as free PDFs, a liberal copyright policy, special discounts on publications and much more.</p> <p>Please see our&nbsp;Guide for Authors&nbsp;for information on article submission. If you require any further information or help, please visit our&nbsp;contact Address.</p> en-US Journal of Botany Assessment of patterns of rice major traits and their influence in shaping grain yield <p>Investigating exclusive as well as patterns of major traits plays a key role in yield improvement of rice. We evaluated 54 genotypes for 28 major characters putatively boosting rice yield. Our results showed that patterns of all length and width traits, panicles traits, tillering and panicle position have a profound influence on grain yield per plant (PPGW). Width factors (traits expand horizontally) impact was higher on grain yield than length factors (traits expand vertically). Among traits the number of tillers per plant showed the super influence on per plant yield than panicle traits. The study propose a convincing picture of an ideotype that would better accountable for high production of having high number of tillers with reasonable thickness, moderate plant height, lower panicle position, intermediate panicle length, low number of primary branches and high number of secondary branches per panicle with high grain yield per plant and harvest index. Further, the investigations also suggest molecular approach to get insight to shared genes or cluster of genes and their interaction which shape various traits or factors in a particular way.</p> Muhammad Abid Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## University of Chitral 2019-09-19 2019-09-19 1 1 1 28 10.33195/uochjb-v1i1302017 Floristic Composition and Biological Spectrum of Hazarnoe Forest of District Malakand, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa <p>The plant species of Hazarnoe Forest of District Malakand, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, were evaluated floristically from April 2016 to November 2017. Of the total 240 reported plant species, 38 were monocots, 196 dicots which belongs to 85 families and 188 genera respectively. Poaceae was the leading family contributed 20 species.&nbsp; Family Asteraceae contributed (14 spp.), Lamiaceae (13 spp.) while Papilionaceae and Solanaceae each with 10 species. Of the total plant taxa perennials were 161 species compared to annuals (73 spp.) and biennials (06 spp.). The dominant growth form was herbs that contributed (108 spp.) followed by trees (50 spp.) and shrubs (45 spp.) respectively. Phanerophytes were the dominant life-form (92 spp.) whereas leaf size spectrum of microphyll was reported as abundant in the overall floristic. Phanerophytes and microphyll leaf size was the dominant life forms which show typical climate of subtropical region governing the area. Conclusion of study was that the vegetation of the area is under heavy biotic pressure and need proper conservation.</p> Asghar Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## University of Chitral 2019-09-19 2019-09-19 1 1 29 44 10.33195/uochjb-v1i1322017 Estimation of genetic diversity in the germplasm of Brassica Campestris (L.) Using morphological and biochemical markers <p>A total of 60 genotypes of <em>Brassica campestris </em>(L) germplasm were acquired from National Research Centre (NARC) Islamabad, Pakistan for the evaluation of genetic diversity using the morphological characters and SDS-PAGE analysis. These genotypes were grown-up in Plant Garden Department of plant sciences, University of Malakand, Khyber Pukhtunkhwa, Pakistan. For the assessment of genetic diversity&nbsp; total of 18 morphological traits were scored and their phylogenetic relationship were plot through cluster diagram. For the estimation of genetic diversity, we used the most influential technique SDS PAGE. We observed six loci (bands) from the collected genotypes; locus-1 (band-1) contained 100% bands of protein and obvious as monomorphic locus while loci i.e. 2,3,4,5 and 6 showed 28%, 42%, 36%, 56% and 25%, respectively variation and were polymorphic. The inter species locus influence toward genetic assortment (LCTGA) was 83.33% in the attained genotypes. Profiling through SDS PAGE based on two-way cluster plotting resolved effectively the collected genotype into 4 cluster. We consider that this work provides a baseline for the understanding genetic diversity in the common crops used in Pakistan and warrants further investigation in this newly evolving field of study. &nbsp;</p> Zakir Ullah ##submission.copyrightStatement## University of Chitral 2019-09-19 2019-09-19 1 1 45 59 10.33195/uochjb-v1i1332017 Ecological Study of Different Communities Site from District Lower Dir Laram Timargara Khyber Pakhtun Khwa Pakistan <p>In the present research work the ecological community study was carried out of District Lower Dir Laram Timargara Khyber Pakhtun Khwa Pakistan. Salvia- Cynodon-Berberis community (SCB). This community comprises a total of 24 plants species. Among these 16 are herbaceous plants, 8 are shrubby plants, while there is no single tree species found in this community. The community is dominated by <em>Salvia moocruftiana</em> <em>Wall, Cynodon dactylon</em> and <em>Berberis lyceum</em>. The Species richness (S.R) is 1.31055873, similarity index (S.I) is 33.33333 and its Maturity index (M.I) is 49. Verbascum-Buddleja-Cotoneaster community (VBC).This community comprises a total of 23 plants species. Among these 10 are herbaceous, 8 are shrubby plants, while the remaining 5 plants are tree species. The community is dominated by Verbascum thapsus, Buddleja crispa and Cotoneaster nummularia. Species richness (S.R) of the community is 1.499237, similarity index (S.I) is 30.188679 while its Maturity index (M.I) is 46. Cyperus- Calotropis- Ziziphus community (CCZ).This community comprises a total of 32 plants species. Among these 20 are herbaceous, 8 are shrubby plants, while the remaining 5 plants are tree species. The community is dominated by Cypres rotundus, Calotropis procera and Cotoneaster nummularia. The Spcies richness (S.R) of the community is 1.146771, similarity index (SI) is 24.39024 and its Maturity index (M.I) is 58.3783. The aim of the present study to explore the flora of Laram Timargara Mountains.</p> Shakir Ullah ##submission.copyrightStatement## University of Chitral 2019-09-19 2019-09-19 1 1 60 78 10.33195/uochjb-v1i1342017 Ethno veterinary Plants Practices at Maidan Valley, lower Dir, Western Himalaya, Pakistan <p>The present study was carried out in order to document the indigenous ethno veterinary knowledge (EVK) practiced by inhabitants of Maidan valley. Ethno veterinary studies were carried out at three localities from November to May. The localities were named as Manyal, Kumber and Kotkay. All the information were collected regarding Botanical names, local names, part used, methods of preparation, dosage and uses. Thirty species (30) species of twenty four (24) families 29 genera of herbs, shrubs and trees were listed. Apiaceae, Brassicaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Lamiaceae, Papilionaceae and Poaceae with two (2) species Acanthaceae, Asclepiadiaceae, Asteraceae, Berberidaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Moraceae, Meliaceae, Mimosaceae, Myrtaceae, Oleaceae, Papaveraceae, Paeoniaceae, Pinaceae, Piperaceae, Sapindaceae, Solanaceae, Violaceae and Zygophylaceae with one(1) species each. Forty seven (47) diseases are cured by these thirty (30) species i.e. Abdominal pain, anesthetic, anti-heat, body temperature, cough, flu, fever, heat cycle, mucus problem, worms and wounds. It has been noted that cough is cured by five (5) species, constipation and digestion by three (3) species, flu by two (2) species, acne, antispasmodic, abdominal pain, anti-diarrheal, anti-pain, anesthetic, anti- heat, body pain, bacterial diseases, body temperature, broken organs, estrous, expectorant, fever, purgative, gastric trouble, heat cycle, healing wounds, injury, intestinal activeness, indigestion, intestinal worms, infection, increase milk, intestinal pain, muscle relaxation, mucus problem, nasal problem, power, pneumonia, purgative, repellent, respiratory diseases, respiratory track problem, stomach pain, stomach problem, stomach irritation, tick problem, throat problem, viral diseases, worms and wounds by one (1) species each. Calotropis procera is used for indigestion, intestinal worms and infections and Acacia modesta is used for mucus membrane irritation, stomach irritation and digestion. The present study documented missing literature regarding ethno veterinary knowledge which was not previously mentioned.</p> Bashir Ud Din ##submission.copyrightStatement## University of Chitral 2019-09-19 2019-09-19 1 1 79 95 10.33195/uochjb-v1i1352017 Floristic list and their ecological characteristics, of plants at village Derikot Selai Pattay district Malakand Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan <p>Floristic composition and characteristics studies were made in of vallag Derikot selai pattay District Malakand Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.The floristic composition of present study comprised of 146 species and 41 genera which belong to 39 families. It included 115 dicots species, Monocot 24, Gymnosperm 2, Pteridophytes 5, species. Family Asteraceae (23 spp.)is dominant family in floristic table. In the present study, therophytes with 57 species (39.041%.) were the dominant life form in the study area. Nanophanerophytes with 22 species (15.06%). Microphanerophytes with 22 species (15.06 %). Hemicryptophytes with 19 species (13. 01%). Chamaephytes with 15 species (10. 27%). Geophytes with 5 specie (3.42%). and Megaphanerophytes with 2 species (1.36%) Mesophanerophytes with 4 species (2.73%) were least observed life forms. Leaf size spectra was dominant by microphylls with 61 species (41.78%) followed by mesophylls with 35 species (23.97%), Nanophylls with 26 species (17.80%),Leptophylls with 17 species (11.64%), Aphyllous with 4 species (2.73%).Megaphylls 2 species (1.36%).Macrophyll only 1species (0.66 %) of study area.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Muhammad Ishaq ##submission.copyrightStatement## University of Chitral 2019-09-19 2019-09-19 1 1 96 108 10.33195/uochjb-v1i1362017 Weed Flora in Cereal crops of district Bannu <p>In the present research work (2016-2018), there was reported 100 genera having 114 species distributed among 37 families. Out of which 5 were of monoct families (with 21 genera and 23 spp.) and 32 families of dicot (with 79 genera &amp; 91 spp.). According to percentage data, it was reported that the weed members of family Poaceae was the greatest in cereal crops having 16.666% spp, while the family Asteraceae was next one with 14.912% weeds spp. Family Boraginaceae and Papilionaceae gaining third position having 6.140% weeds spp. Amaranthaceae, Brassicaceae and Solanaceae having 5.263%, Euphorbiaceae (4.385%), Polygonaceae (3.508%), Zygophyllaceae (2.631%), while the remaining families have less then 2.00 % weeds species. It was reported that <em>Cirsium arvense, Convolvulus arvensis, Conyza bonariensis, Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus rotundus, Parthenium hysterophorus </em>and<em> Sonchus asper </em>were the common weed found in all the three important cereal crops i.e wheat, maize and rice.</p> Rehman Ullah Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## University of Chitral 2019-09-19 2019-09-19 1 1 109 123 10.33195/uochjb-v1i1372017 Cardiac function profiling and its antidiabetic effect of Daphne mucronata in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits <p>Diabetes mellitus is a chronic hyperglycemia associated with elevated plasma cholesterol. Natural and traditional herbal remedies are a source of new commercial products. &nbsp;Anti- diabetic potential of <em>D. mucronata </em>extracts (methanol) has been assessed in alloxan monohydrate diabetic induced rabbits. The extracts were given orally by 8 hours. The dose rate was 12 mg, 125mg, 225 mg and 325mg/kg body weight respectively. At every 2 hours blood sample was collected, serum separated and glucose level was determined by kit method. The result suggests that the treatment of 325 mg/kg body weight significantly (p&lt;0.05) decreased blood glucose and cholesterol level at 143 mg/dl and 166.33 mg/dl in the experimental group. Therefore, it is concluded that the <em>D. mucronata </em>possess significant anti-diabetic activity.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Basit Ali ##submission.copyrightStatement## University of Chitral 2019-09-19 2019-09-19 1 1 124 130 10.33195/uochjb-v1i1382017 Study of blood glucose and SGPT lowering effects of Daphne Mucronata Royle in induced diabetic rabbits <p>This study was carried out to study Anti-diabetic effect of the plant <em>Daphne mucronata</em> extract in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits. To the first fifteen healthy rabbits taken and divided them into five groups as each group contains three numbers of rabbits. Group one kept in normal condition means no induction or treatment observed. Group second was given the diabetic control dose in quantity (12mg/kg). Group three also treated with the dose rate (125mg/kg) the <em>D. Mucronata</em> (methanol) extract. Similarly group no four was treat with the subject extract in the concentration of (225mg/kg). And the last fifth group of rabbits had the dosage of extract (325mg/kg). This mechanism of entrance was orally ingestion and the treatment duration was eight hours, after each of the next two hours from the start the blood samples were collected, serum separated and the glucose level determined by the method known by Kit method. After all the observations we reached to an impressive conclusion that the <em>D. Mucronata</em> (methanol) extract has significant potential to reduce blood glucose level and also recognized to be effective to reduce the blood SGPT enzyme level, so it can be suggested that this plant has such&nbsp; antidiabetic and SGPT reduction effect.</p> AZIZ ULLAH ##submission.copyrightStatement## University of Chitral 2019-09-19 2019-09-19 1 1 131 142 10.33195/uochjb-v1i1392017 Hypoglycemic and Hypocholestrolemic study of Monothica boxifolia Falc. in induced diabetic Rabbits <p>In the present examination, antidiabetic capability of <em>Monothica </em>separates (methanol) has been assessed in alloxan-prompted diabetic hares. Fifteen solid, bunnies were separated into four unique gatherings including, Normal control, Diabetic control , treated with <em>Monothica</em> methanol remove, with 3 hares in each gathering. The concentrates were given orally for 24 hours, 100 mg, 200 mg, 300 mg extricate per bunny every day. At regular intervals blood test was gathered, serum isolated and absolute glucose level, cholesterol level was controlled by unit strategy. The body weight was recorded on like clockwork interim. The <em>Monotheca</em> methanol extricates lowered blood glucose and cholesterol level demonstrated greatest decrease adequately. The treatment with these concentrates additionally diminished the blood glucose and cholesterol. Along these lines, it is presumed that the <em>Monotheca</em> possess noteworthy antidiabetic movement.</p> Tao Shiheng ##submission.copyrightStatement## University of Chitral 2019-09-19 2019-09-19 1 1 143 150 10.33195/uochjb-v1i1412017 Study of Blood Glucose and SGPT lowering effect of Eucalyptus Lanceolata Linn. in Induced Diabetic Rabbits <p>The part of the plant to curing the diabetes mellitus and improves available data on plants with hypoglycemic effects. Antidiuretic potential of eucalyptus extracts has been evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbit. Here we used, plants extract about 256 kg were mix with 1000 ml methanol and keep in Flask. After filtering the extracts were exposed to rotary evaporator machine that methanol separated from plant extract. In the Nine rabbit were divided into three different groups. The body weight was recorded on every 6 days interval. The data obtained revealed that eucalyptus extracts reduced the glucose level effectively. Such treatment with extracts decreased the SGPT level. Therefore, it is concluded that the eucalyptus possesses significant antidiabetic activity. And finally, we recommend this plant for medicinal uses and for pharmaceutical industries to isolate pure drugs.</p> Siddiq ur Rahman ##submission.copyrightStatement## University of Chitral 2019-09-23 2019-09-23 1 1 151 158 10.33195/uochjb-v1i1422017 Ethno botanical survey of wild medicinal plants of Khairabad Valley district Dir (Lower), Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa <p>The present survey for the ethno-botanical study was conduct on Khairabad Valley, Dir lower PK Pakistan, which as contain a lot of wild medicinal. Collect information including local names, local medicinal uses, Status of plants. A total of 50 plants were collected, out of which 4 were gymnosperm and 46 belong to angiosperm. Belong to 32 family, out of this the family Liliaceae was leading contain 8 specie, followed by family Solanaceae with 3 specie, and family Apiaceae two specie, Rosaceae and Rutaceae consist three specie and the remaining all consist of single species on the basis of the their status the plant were divided in to herb 50%, shrub 18%, tree 30% and climber 2%. 6 plant uses were as tonic, four were as anticancer, three purgative and two plants were used as antiseptic, 6 are laxative, 4 for wound, 3 used for digestive disorder, 5 sedative, 9 use as a pain killer, 2 for blood stopping, 4 used as anthelimintis, 4 carminative, 2 used for vomiting, 5 for lever disorder, 5 headache, 7 for cough, 4 as a purgative, 3 ar0matic, 2 hemorrhoids, 4 astringent, 4 used as anti inflammatory.</p> Arshad Ali ##submission.copyrightStatement## University of Chitral 2019-09-23 2019-09-23 1 1 159 168 10.33195/uochjb-v1i1432017 The response of Capsicum annuum L. growth to different phosphorus level and sowing dates <p>A field research was conducted in the horticulture nursery the University of Agriculture Peshawar during the period 25 February to 14 April 2013 on the response of chilli (<em>Capsicum annuum</em>) growth to phosphorus level and sowing dates, to know the suitable time of sowing for better production of chilli, and know the optimum level of phosphorus for better growth of chilli. Amid split plot arrangements, the design used for the experiment was a randomized complete block design. Two factors involved i.e. Phosphorus levels and date of Sowing. Main plot constitutes Phosphorus levels whereas sowing date was in sub plot. Three times total 12 treatments were replicated. During this research of chilli different growth level study under phosphorous from sowing to plants ripeness and fruits. With the increase in Phosphorous level all parameters via, the height of plant, twigs no. and fruit number/plant increased significantly. Height of plant and twigs number increased significantly at its 1st blossoming and yield with an increase in P levels up to the cure while at final yield all parameters greatly improved up to the P2 treatment. The greatest plant tallness at final yield was obtained from P2 greatest numbers of fruits were presents in final P3 phosphorus levels. Phosphorus level (70 Kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) showed significantly best results followed by (100 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>). The rest of the phosphorus level showed moderate results. Early sowing date (25<sup>th </sup>February) was the best sowing date for bringel cultivation as compare the rest of the sowing dates. Thus it is recommended that bringel cultivation should be done during the 3<sup>rd</sup> week of February and the phosphorus level should be between 70 and 100 kg ha-1 depending on the soil type</p> Muhammad Shuaib ##submission.copyrightStatement## University of Chitral 2019-09-19 2019-09-19 1 1 169 182 10.33195/uochjb-v1i1442017 Effect of Daphne mucronata on Alkaline Phosphatase Enzyme and Glucose in Diabetic Rabbits <p>The present study was designed to evaluate the&nbsp;antidiuretic&nbsp;potential of the aqueous leaves extract of&nbsp;the <em>D. mucronata.</em> Anti- diabetic potential of <em>D. mucronata </em>extracts (methanol) has been assessed in alloxan monohydrate diabetic induced rabbits. The extracts were given orally by 8 hours. The dose rate was 12 mg, 125mg, 225 mg and 325mg/kg body weight respectively. At every 2 hours blood sample was collected, serum separated and glucose level was determined by kit method. The result suggests that the treatment of 325 mg/kg body weight significantly (p&lt;0.05) decreased blood glucose and ALP level at 143 mg/dl and 242.66 mg/dl in the experimental group. Therefore, it is concluded that the <em>D. mucronata </em>possess significant anti-diabetic activity.</p> Ruqayya Arzu ##submission.copyrightStatement## University of Chitral 2019-09-19 2019-09-19 1 1 183 189 10.33195/uochjb-v1i1452017