Ethno veterinary Plants Practices at Maidan Valley, lower Dir, Western Himalaya, Pakistan
The present study was carried out in order to document the indigenous ethno veterinary knowledge (EVK) practiced by inhabitants of Maidan valley. Ethno veterinary studies were carried out at three localities from November to May. The localities were named as Manyal, Kumber and Kotkay. All the information were collected regarding Botanical names, local names, part used, methods of preparation, dosage and uses. Thirty species (30) species of twenty four (24) families 29 genera of herbs, shrubs and trees were listed. Apiaceae, Brassicaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Lamiaceae, Papilionaceae and Poaceae with two (2) species Acanthaceae, Asclepiadiaceae, Asteraceae, Berberidaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Moraceae, Meliaceae, Mimosaceae, Myrtaceae, Oleaceae, Papaveraceae, Paeoniaceae, Pinaceae, Piperaceae, Sapindaceae, Solanaceae, Violaceae and Zygophylaceae with one(1) species each. Forty seven (47) diseases are cured by these thirty (30) species i.e. Abdominal pain, anesthetic, anti-heat, body temperature, cough, flu, fever, heat cycle, mucus problem, worms and wounds. It has been noted that cough is cured by five (5) species, constipation and digestion by three (3) species, flu by two (2) species, acne, antispasmodic, abdominal pain, anti-diarrheal, anti-pain, anesthetic, anti- heat, body pain, bacterial diseases, body temperature, broken organs, estrous, expectorant, fever, purgative, gastric trouble, heat cycle, healing wounds, injury, intestinal activeness, indigestion, intestinal worms, infection, increase milk, intestinal pain, muscle relaxation, mucus problem, nasal problem, power, pneumonia, purgative, repellent, respiratory diseases, respiratory track problem, stomach pain, stomach problem, stomach irritation, tick problem, throat problem, viral diseases, worms and wounds by one (1) species each. Calotropis procera is used for indigestion, intestinal worms and infections and Acacia modesta is used for mucus membrane irritation, stomach irritation and digestion. The present study documented missing literature regarding ethno veterinary knowledge which was not previously mentioned.